香港會計師公會 HKICPA 專訪 香港區塊鏈協會HKBA會長 唐儀
香港會計師公會HKICPA 專訪 香港區塊鏈協會HKBA會長唐儀
香港區塊鏈協會HKBA.club 據 香港會計師公會 HKICPA APlus 雜誌採訪報導 2022/4/28 刊登了當前流行的元宇宙和虛擬世界發展的專家訪談。APlus 雜誌編輯 Jeremy Chan對香港會計師公會 HKICPA 專訪 香港區塊鏈協會Hong Kong Blockchain Association HKBA.club會長唐儀 TonyTong.co 做了深度的交流，對香港區塊鏈金融科技元宇宙行業的現狀和未來，做了探討。 HKICPA APlus 雜誌採訪原文英文版
元宇宙和不可替代的數字資產激起了全球人們和行業的興趣 - 所有人都希望從這一增長趨勢中獲利。但是，由於對虛擬資產的監管很少，許多風險仍然存在。 HKBA唐儀告訴Jeremy Chan，企業如何利用這一商機，合理運用虛擬資產為企業發展賦能、用利潤豐厚的數字經濟鋪平道路。
元宇宙將為當前的視頻通話和會議增加另一個可感知的維度，Safari Asia Limited主席、香港註冊會計師協會企業融資委員會成員Timothy Shen FCPA表示: “視訊會議的興起，例如通過Zoom，Google Meet或Microsoft Teams，是人們虛擬會議的解決方案。但這些仍然是二維會議，” 他說。“在元宇宙中，人們可以使用化身Avartar見面，而不是打電話或視頻通話。人們可以選擇做自己，也可以在3D世界中擁有不同的身份。
香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA 聯合主席兼聯合創始人唐儀TonyTong.co 認為: 除了提供一種與家人、朋友或同事溝通的新方式外，元宇宙還將類似於互聯網的3D版本，給企業帶來全新的產品和服務方式。在接下來的幾年裡，我們將看到更多在元宇宙中佔有一席之地的公司。 例如, 香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA 聯合主席 柴舸洋ChaiGeYang創始的Tagging元宇宙社交應用獲數千萬元融資, Tagging.club 主要面向內容應用，致力於通過為使用者塑造一個虛擬數位身份，來搭建元宇宙的入場券。 Hong Kong Blockchain Association HKBA.club , Metaverse Education College
香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA 聯合主席唐儀TonyTong認為: " Tagging.club 在元宇宙賽道裡切中了全新的商業模式，創新性地將社交元素和商業元素結合在一起，通過簡單的操作打造立體和全面的用戶虛擬形象Avatar，給使用者提供一個UGC內容打賞的社交新模式。它將使用者資料資產化，而這種資料資產未來可應用的場景非常廣泛，比如人脈管理、虛擬積分商業化等等。同時，Tagging注重保護使用者資料安全，構建一個公平、中立、去中心化的元宇宙社交平臺。Tagging擁有扎實底層的技術和演算法，能夠很好地結合現實和虛擬世界，並具有社交和商業化屬性。我們看到Tagging正在創造一種新的社交模式和應用場景，從Z世代到商業品牌，Tagging針對的用戶群非常廣闊，市場容量大，而且商業模式具有極強的可拓展性，我們可以預期它將在這個賽道裡構建一個全新的數位化社交生態體系。"
香港區塊鏈協會聯合主席唐儀TonyTong 分享道: " 我們HKBA協會另外一個亞洲知名的Web3 SocialFi社交應用項目CloudChat在元宇宙賽道中開創了全新的商業模式，將 Social 社交元素和Finance加密金融科技元素結合在一起給使用者提供一個Chat2Earn內容打賞的社交金融科技新模式。 CloudChat.com本身是一個社交應用程式 SoFi APP，通過整合CloudChat.cc錢包，將社交與區塊鏈進行顛覆性的融合。 CC開發團隊為我們協會會員做了一個更好的ChatApp SocialFi應用，專門服務於加密貨幣社區: DeFi, GameFi, NFT, Move2Earn, Play2Earn, Chat2Earn。 CloudChat希望在HKBA協會會員用戶基礎上有更大的發展，讓更多的KOL大使加入我們，説明CC在你的地區和行業中推廣。"
根據雲聊官網介紹 CloudChat.com CC雲聊擁有2000萬註冊用戶，20萬日活躍用戶，從2019年上線 Apple /Android/Web到2022年短短3年的時間，用戶從亞洲輻射到世界各地，擁有堅實的社區用戶基礎，有真正的SocialFi應用，實用性，用戶基礎，社區，生態體系，更重要的是，CC可以幫助建立用戶的NFT加密用戶群，並通過CC錢包做加密貨幣支付。CloudChat是一個安全的Web3通信服務RCS，提供個人聊天、群聊、網路電話、視頻通話、對講機、內容共用和檔案傳輸服務，支援與物聯網設備相關的一系列服務，包括註冊、發現、遠端呼叫、計費和支付，同時擁有流媒體 Vidio/Audio Content Delivery Network CDN、平臺計費等服務。 CloudChat.CC錢包系統基於區塊鏈技術開發，讓支付環境更安全，讓資產管理更便捷，並完善API介面。 CloudChat社區用戶可以通過持有CC代幣享受CloudChat社區投票選舉權益。CloudChat開發團隊早在2018-19年就開始做移動聊天應用，開發團隊成員遍佈大中華區,香港,臺灣,新加坡,迪拜,美國。CloudChat已被CertiK成功審核: CertiK.com Solidity Security Audit已成功完成CloudChat智慧合約和安全審計.
NFT和元宇宙的崛起給財務職能帶來了挑戰，因為目前沒有針對NFT的具體會計規則或披露要求，HashKey Capital運營經理Eileen Li CPA指出。這將給需要確定NFT估值的會計師帶來挑戰。“在報告方面，缺乏會計準則指導可能導致會計師低估或高估NFT的估值，例如，即使會計師試圖在OpenSea等NFT市場上使用其他NFT的底價或平均交易價格來評估NFT，這仍然非常具有挑戰性。這是因為每個NFT都是獨一無二的。
香港區塊鏈協會簡介 Hong Kong Blockchain Association HKBA.club
香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA.club 是一個開放、自主、平等的去中心化組織 (Decentralized Organization DAO)。通過學習、交流及推廣區塊鏈技術及應用，HKBA致力於成為鏈接大中華及元宇宙世界的銜接平臺, 並將香港打造成新時代的金融科技中心。香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA 元宇宙教育學院 Edi.College 是一個開放的線上教育知識共用平臺 -- 連接行業專家、風險投資和天使投資人、教師講師教授、學生、企業家、初創企業和孵化器的線上知識共用平臺和元宇宙學習社區知 www.Edi.College .
香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA.club聯席主席 Co-Chairman: 唐儀 TonyTong.co, 王兟Sing Wang, 王岳華 Richard Wang, 蔡全 Charley Tsai, 陳宜飈博士 Dr. Chen YiBiao, 柴舸洋 Chai GeYang; 香港區塊鏈協會榮譽主席 HKBA Honorary Chairman : 郭毅可教授 Prof. Guo Yike, 朱嘉明教授 Prof. Zhu JiaMing, 蔡維德教授 Prof. Wei-Tek Tsai, 林家禮博士 Dr. Lee George Lam, 柳志偉博士 Dr. Liu ZhiWei, 蔡文勝 Cai WenSheng, 鄧迪 Deng Di, 張俊勇 Thomas Cheung, 林萬强 Steven Lin, 陳燿璋 Anson Chan, 劉小鷹 Steve Lau, 勞維信博士 Dr. WaiShun Lo, 陳建榮教授 Prof. Timmy Tan, 趙旭 Michael Xu Zhao, 石柱 Shi Zhu, 余剛博士 Dr. George Yu, 馬鴻銘 John Ma, 張壽松 Sossion …
香港區塊鏈協會 Hong Kong Blockchain Association HKBA.club 是香港最國際化的本地區塊鏈協會,亦是最當地語系化的國際商會。我們的會員網絡包羅香港互聯網企業、區塊鏈金融 、科技企業、金融證券企業、上市公司、跨國集團，以及眾多蓬勃發展的中小企業和初創公司，從事業務包括金融科技FinTech、Blockchain、雲計算/雲數據中心 Cloud Data Center、NFT、Metaverse元宇宙教育、網絡安全Security、科技、電訊、 NFT Art及法律Legal 專業服務 等等。請即加入本會，開拓人脈，反映意見！ HKBA雄厚和具廣泛代表性的會員網絡，主導我們成為金融科技界之聲；我們助您擴闊商業圈、緊貼市場脈搏和開展業務。只需一個企業會籍，貴公司的所有全職員工都可以全面地享用本會的各項服務和優惠。
HKBA 會員優惠 HKBA Membership Benefits 會籍專享優惠:
參與HKBA的會員專享重點活動, 擴展業務和聯繫, HKBA元宇宙教育學院 Edi.College 課程,
出席各式各樣的 Blockchain NFT Metaverse Education 知識型活動和培訓坊,
元宇宙教育學院 Online Training, Certificates, Diploma 專業證書及文憑; 緊貼市場最新發展和更新技能;
香港區塊鏈協會 HKBA Edi.College 元宇宙教育學院
香港九龍彌敦道528號 Onward Building G/F, 528 Nathan Road, YauMaTei, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
HKBA Meta Education WeChat ID: TT62500023; https://Link1.in/Edi.College
HKBA Membership Email: info@HKBA.club
HKBA & Edi.College web links: www.HKBA.club
HKBA.club Youtube Video Channel:
香港區塊鏈協會HKBA.club香港都會大學HKMU TonyTong.co 唐儀區塊鏈金融科技課程 嗶哩嗶哩 視頻:
Tagging.club HKBA元宇宙教育學院戰略夥伴-喜馬拉雅收聽Tagging HKBA音訊專輯:
Hong Kong Institute of CPAs HKICPA A Plus Magazine
Virtually limitless 4/28/2022
The metaverse and non-fungible tokens have piqued the interest of people and businesses worldwide – all hoping to cash in on this growing trend. But with little regulation governing virtual assets, many risks still remain. Experts tell Jeremy Chan how companies can capitalize on this business opportunity, and how being able to own virtual assets is already paving the way for a new and lucrative digital economy
Illustrations by Ibrahim Rayintakath - Virtually limitless
On 23 December 2021, PwC Hong Kong announced that it had decided to acquire new land to do business. Though it may sound unsurprising for the Big Four firm – which already has 742 offices in 157 countries globally – the new piece of land they purchased didn’t exist in the real world: it was virtual land located in a three-dimensional virtual world, known as the metaverse.
The acquisition made PwC Hong Kong the first member of an internationally recognized professional services network to publicly enter The Sandbox, one of the largest metaverse platforms today. One definition of the metaverse is a virtual environment in which users can – after creating or choosing an avatar – freely roam around, attend events, purchase items and property, and interact with other users’ avatars. Users access the world through a virtual reality (VR) headset or through computers or smartphones. It is, however, somewhat different from typical VR games that have existed before. People can buy and then “own” virtual assets within the metaverse. This is made possible today largely through owning what is known as a non-fungible token (NFT) of that digital asset (such as images, music, videos and virtual creations like virtual land). An NFT is a non-interchangeable unit of data stored on a digital ledger, known as a blockchain, that can be sold or traded. In essence, it gives a person the right to digital ownership.
PwC isn’t alone – companies and big banks also recognize the growing need to connect with customers and business partners through the metaverse, and prepare for a shift in interactions towards the digital world from physical branches. HSBC announced in March that it had also purchased virtual territory in The Sandbox, while JPMorgan Chase set up shop in Decentraland, another metaverse platform, in February. The hype has also led brands such as Adidas, Gucci and Samsung, and celebrities such as Paris Hilton and Snoop Dogg, to secure property in the metaverse. Space in these worlds come at a hefty price. Republic Realm, a company that develops real estate in the metaverse, purchased area in The Sandbox in November 2021 for US$4.3 million, the most expensive metaverse purchase to date, while an anonymous buyer forked out US$450,000 to own a spot next to hip-hop artist Snoop Dogg.
Despite being a new concept that is still developing in terms of its form and practical application, there is a rush to have a presence within the metaverse. This can be attributed to the sheer size and potential of the metaverse economy in the next 10 years. According to Metaverse and Money: Decrypting the Future, a report released last month by Citigroup Inc., the metaverse economy could be worth up to US$13 trillion by 2030, and boast as many as five billion users by then.
A new dimension of possibility
Interest in the metaverse has skyrocketed within the last two years. This is partly due to more reliance on virtual meetings as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, says Bosco Lin CPA, Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of DTTD, a crypto wallet and financial services platform for NFTs. “With people having to work from home, people have found new ways, such as Zoom calls, to do business and interact with others. But this obviously can’t replace in person interaction – so the metaverse fits in between,” he says. “The concept of owning of a virtual asset is also causing interest.”
The metaverse will add another perceptible dimension to current video calls and conferences, says Timothy Shen FCPA, Chairman of Safari Asia Limited, and a member of the Hong Kong Institute of CPAs’ Corporate Finance Committee. “The rise of video conferences, such as through Zoom, Google Meet or Microsoft Teams, are solutions for people to meet virtually. But these are still two-dimensional meetings,” he says. “In the metaverse, instead of having a phone or video call, people could use an avatar to meet. People could choose to be themselves or have different identities in a 3D world.”
Beyond offering a new way of communicating with family, friends or coworkers, the metaverse will resemble a “3D version” of the Internet, believes Tony Tong, Co-Chairman and Co-founder of the Hong Kong Blockchain Association. He says it will offer businesses a brand new way to market and sell their products or services. “In the next few years, we’re going to see more companies with a presence on the metaverse,” Tong says. “Think back to 20 years ago, when companies had to register their own domain name, and build their website on the Internet to then sell their products and services online. The next step of evolution is the metaverse, where I expect many companies to move their products to a 3D virtual shop, gallery or shopping mall.”
Companies that want to venture into the metaverse and maximize its potential for growth will need to first determine how they can use a virtual presence to boost their business, and then learn how to “mint” their products into NFTs, or publish their token on the blockchain to make it purchasable within the metaverse.
As Lin notes, it is up to businesses to decide what products will be useful in the form of an NFT. “The utility and real use case for NFTs is still expanding,” he points out. “Companies or professional bodies that are new to NFTs can start by issuing NFT memberships to their customers, for example. This is one easy way a company can engage with its users. Schools or educational institutions could also issue diplomas in the form of an NFT.”
NFTs transactions take place on a blockchain, which makes it easy for users to track transactions. “Only through blockchain, can one be a unique identifier or true owner of a digital asset,” Tong explains. “NFTs allow you to create an identification for anything digital. Without blockchain, everything else is just an image or file. It can simply be copied and passed around, and there’s no way to differentiate the real version with a copy.”
This enables NFTs to provide “proof of ownership.” Akin to a digital signature, NFTs are tokens marked with unique information that cannot be found on any other token in the blockchain, and are non-fungible, meaning they cannot be interchangeable with other tokens.
Similar to blockchain, the metaverse is decentralized by nature and, like the Internet itself, does not rely on a single company or organization for control. Instead, it relies on its network of users and blockchain technology to operate, which facilitates the safe buying and selling of assets in the metaverse. For example, a user’s NFT would remain completely unaffected even if the user quit the metaverse, if there was an adverse event within the platform, or if the metaverse was deleted. Blockchain will act as an immutable record of how assets are created, altered, traded, and destroyed in the metaverse.
The use of blockchain, Tong adds, is also what differentiates the metaverse from online virtual platforms or games that emerged in the early 2000s, where users interacted with others with a custom-made avatar. “Without blockchain, the metaverse is simply a VR or augmented reality game or experience. There’s no economics, or any way of authenticating the value of assets in the game or ownership,” he explains.
Finding fair value
The rise in prominence of NFTs and the metaverse presents challenges for the finance function, as there are currently no specific accounting rules or disclosure requirements for NFTs, notes Eileen Li CPA, Operations Manager at HashKey Capital. This will pose challenges for accountants who need to determine the valuation of an NFT. “When it comes to reporting, the lack of accounting standard guidance may lead accountants to either underestimate or overestimate the valuation of an NFT,” she says.
NFTs are also more difficult to value because they are not frequently traded and their worth is often based on the level of supply or demand for the related market. Other factors that affect an NFT’s value include their utility (how they represent virtual assets such as land or items in the metaverse), tangibility (how they are used to verify real-world objects such as concert tickets), interoperability (whether the NFT can be used across different platforms), and its ownership history (the identity of an NFT’s previous owner or owners may impact its value), according to cryptocurrency news website Cointelegraph.
“When it comes to reporting, the lack of accounting standard guidance may lead accountants to either underestimate or overestimate the valuation of an NFT.”
This leads to large price fluctuations for NFTs, says Li. “Even if accountants try to value an NFT using the floor price or average transaction price of other NFTs on an NFT marketplace like OpenSea, for example, it’s still very challenging. This is because each NFT is unique,” she says.
This will add another degree of uncertainty for stakeholders who view the financial statements of companies that have invested in or purchased a large amount of NFTs. “A listed company’s financial statements must be able to reflect the financial position of that company. But say a company purchases a significant amount of NFTs – this might affect stakeholders’ decision-making when they look at the financial statements and see that there is a large fluctuation in value between the reporting date and date the report is released,” Li points out.
Currently, crypto-assets, which include NFTs, are classified as intangible assets in accordance with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 38 Intangible Assets. There is a need for more robust accounting requirements that represent the underlying transactions of cryptocurrency transactions, according to the Institute’s response to the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) Third Agenda Consultation, which notes that accounting for cryptocurrencies under IAS 38 Intangible Assets and IAS 2 Inventories may not provide relevant information when these items are held for speculative or investment purposes. The response also states that the IASB may consider amending the scope of International Financial Reporting Standard 9 Financial Instruments to include cryptocurrencies.
Chief financial officers, Li adds, will need to weigh the pros and cons of delving into the metaverse and look into how it will benefit the company. “Companies also need to consider whether the cost of owning land and operating a business virtually will be profitable in the long term. Companies should pay attention to relevant regulations and check if there are any restrictions before making any investment decisions in this industry,” Li says, exemplifying how her company makes use of their land in Decentraland. “We have our portfolio companies, our blockchain research reports and NFT gifts for visitors on display in our virtual office building. It has acted as a good marketing channel. Because we have a presence in the metaverse, our investors have more confidence in us.”
Companies that own NFTs, Shen adds, should also be prepared to justify their purchases of virtual assets to auditors. “At the end of every fiscal year, an audit firm may show up and ask ‘I noticed that your company spent HK$30 million in purchasing virtual land. Could you tell me how you came up with that value?’ If companies aren’t able to justify the cost, the auditors won’t take their word on the value of the transaction of the virtual land,” he says. “If the supposed value is higher than the cost of the transaction, auditors will only refer to the cost. So the valuation approach is still a bit too open for auditors, as they still aren’t experts in this area themselves.” Until an accounting guidance for cryptocurrency-related assets is written and released, Shen says that company heads may have to justify the value of their virtual purchases using the price trends of cryptocurrencies, bearing in mind that market fluctuations may affect value later on.
Shen says that accountants should equip themselves with relevant knowledge in order to identify business opportunities for companies. “They should be able to identify how these technologies benefit the company. Accountants without knowledge in this area will quickly fall behind in the future,” he says. “Once they do, it will be very difficult for them to catch up. This is because of how blockchain, NFTs, and the metaverse are all interrelated.”
Though blockchain will ensure the transparency of transactions, there is a need to take the necessary measures to ensure one’s virtual assets in the metaverse are safe from cyberattacks. “Whenever someone has a large amount of wealth concentrated into a platform, people will find ways to hack into them,” Tong points out.
For example, on 1 April, Taiwanese singer Jay Chou had his NFT stolen by a phishing website, which hackers were then able to sell for more than US$500,000 only a few hours later. “The incident placed the spotlight on the cybersecurity surrounding NFTs and the digital assets in one’s wallet,” notes Li. Companies and individuals should first know how to identify dubious phishing links when transacting NFTs or cryptocurrency, she adds, and opt to use a “cold” wallet as often as possible, or a wallet that isn’t connected to the Internet. “Individuals and small companies usually opt to use a ‘hot’ wallet because of convenience. But if a hacker can figure out your recovery phrase for the hot wallet, they’ll be able to access your wallet and your money.” To prevent this from happening, Li suggests disconnecting the Internet when generating a recovery phrase and writing it down in a notebook instead of storing it on one’s device.
For extra assurance, businesses can safeguard their virtual assets by engaging with third-party custodians, notes Lin. “Digital asset specialists already exist to help with cybersecurity-related issues, and companies should consult them before stepping into this field. Corporations should be able to rely on these companies, which are licensed and governed by regulators.” Li agrees: “Companies should look for third- party custodians for security and insurance to prepare for hacks and ensure that their insurance covers NFTs.”
The big shift
As more companies and individuals establish a presence within the metaverse over the next few years, this will give rise to a new and more advanced “digital economy,” which refers to economic activity that results from billions of everyday online connections among people, businesses, devices, data, and processes, according to Deloitte. It will be up to individuals and corporations to be creative in how they utilize NFTs, says Lin. “There will be a sea change in the business for the ones who can come up with the best ideas first and execute them. With that, we will see more use cases develop in the NFT space.”
NFTs will be used by organizations or individuals to “immortalize” their products or work, says Tong. “In the future, creativity will be minted as NFTs,” he says. “People will be minting their art, music, videos, inventions, articles, poems, novels as NFTs. Imagine you’re the first person to write a news story about something – you’d be able to mint it as an NFT and people will be able to purchase it.” The South China Morning Post, for example, released a collection of NFTs last month featuring newspaper archives from 1997, which sold out in two hours. Companies can also issue NFTs to authenticate physical products. This month, sports apparel giant Nike started to use NFTs as a way to certify the authenticity of a pair of sneakers, which could one day make it impossible for people to trade counterfeit sneakers.
As companies continue remote or hybrid working arrangements, managers may seek new ways to meet or interact with team members beyond the humdrum of 2D video calls, notes Shen. “Companies might start giving out VR headsets to make meetings within the metaverse a reality – this will entice more people to start using VR headsets,” he says. “Then, say your senior or boss pushes for a conference within the metaverse the following week – this may also encourage adoption.”
“There will be a sea change in the business for the ones who can come up with the best ideas first and execute them. With that, we will see more use cases develop in the NFT space.”
A virtual future
While the metaverse hopes to change the way people meet online, it won’t replace in-person interaction anytime soon, Lin believes. “It will simply remain another channel for people to gather,” he says. “People used to send letters to each other. That evolved into phone calls, emails, and now video calls. All of these helped to bridge the gap between people living in different places. The metaverse is the next generation of communication.”
The pandemic has proven that people can continue working and interacting virtually, which will facilitate the growth of the metaverse, Tong says. “More and more people have got used to staying at home and communicating virtually. This will further help NFTs, the metaverse and the virtual world to grow,” he says. “Even when things go back to normal, people will still flock to the metaverse. Compared with the Internet – where people have a Facebook, Instagram or Twitter account – the metaverse, because it’s in 3D, will be more immersive and interactive.”
Shen believes it won’t be long before people would rather meet virtually in the metaverse, especially if it’s too inconvenient to meet in person. “People already have different identities online – and the metaverse will just be an extension of this.”
According to Metaverse and Money: Decrypting the Future, a report released last month by Citigroup Inc., the metaverse economy will be worth up to US$13 trillion by 2030, and boast as many as five billion users by then.
Finwise Summit峰会上的Blockchain Global 创始人兼CEO Sam Lee